A physical attack is the standard battle action. Almost all classes are capable of making physical attacks, as well as most monsters. Physical attacks are calculated using the characters level, weapon power and sometimes bonus power.
There are many types of attack, primarily Aim, Hit, Critical Hit and Extra Critical Hit. Aim does damage equal to weapon power added to bonus power, Hit does damage equal to weapon power added to level added to bonus power, Critical Hit does damage equal to weapon power multiplied by two added to level added to bonus power, and Extra Critical Hit does damage equal to weapon power multiplied by three added to level added to bonus power.
A successful physical attack also confers any effects from the weapon used to the target.
Effects such as "encouraged" multiply the damage dealt by an attack by two, as does each elemental effectiveness, whereas standing in the back row halves the damage dealt, unless the attack is made with a ranged or throwing weapon, or is a spell.
Certain job classes can cast spells through gems. Spells consume one ether if successful, and do damage equal to that done by a physical attack. However, the damage dealt by a spell is not affected by row, and is always a single type of elemental damage. Spells do not usually transfer effects from the weapon they are cast through.
Certain job classes can heal. Healing consumes ether if successful, and restores health equal to the damage that would be done by a physical attack.
Any character may spend a turn using an item on themselves or on another character. Alchemists may use their Instant items trait to use an item without spending a turn. Characters wielding a Hollow weapon may use whatever consumable item their weapon currently holds as a free ation (without using a turn).
Any class with ether may read a scroll that they possess. Scrolls consume ether regardless of whether they are successful, and do not deal damage or prevent free hits. However, if they are successful they confer an effect to the target. Other ether-consuming items exist as well.
A character may pass an item to another character in battle, however this takes a turn.
A character may equip, remove or exchange one artifact at the cost of a turn.